Speed control of a magnetic accelerator using adaptive control techniques
Keywords:Adaptation models, Adaptive algorithms, Automatic control, Control engineering, Digital control, Negative feedback, Nonlinear dynamical systems, Output feedback, Programmable control, Regulators, Velocity control
Advanced control algorithms are of great interest in control engineering, they make it possible to guarantee the correct operation of complex systems and improve their performance under adverse operating conditions, thanks to negative output feedback. In this work, two adaptive control algorithms are shown: controllers based on Gain Scheduling and Direct Self-Tuning Regulators, using them to control the velocity of an electromagnetic accelerator and comparing their results with those obtained by a classic PID regulator when the system is operated under adverse operating conditions (setpoint changes, load changes and noise resistance). lt shows how this type of regulators can exceed the performance of classical control algorithms, making them a very attractive alternative for digital systems based on microcontrollers, whose high processing capacity allows them to be easily implemented in a wide variety of processes, including nonlinear dynamical systems.
I. O. Benitez, R. Rivas, V. Feliu, L. P. Sanchez and L. A. Sanchez, "Fuzzy Gain Scheduled Smith Predictor for Temperature Control in an Industrial Steel Slab Reheating Furnace," in IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 4439-4447, Nov. 2016, doi: 10.1109/TLA.2016.7795812.
S. Diaz, J. R. Perez-Correa and M. A. Fernandez-Fernandez, "Automatic Control on Batch and Continuous Distillation Columns," in IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2418-2426, September 2018, doi: 10.1109/TLA.2018.8789563.
A. Ebrahimi, M. Urias, N. Patel, R. H. Taylor, P. L. Gehlbach and I. Iordachita, "Adaptive Control Improves Sclera Force Safety in Robot-Assisted Eye Surgery: A Clinical Study," in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, doi: 10.1109/TBME.2021.3071135.
Y. Kang, M. Chu, C. Chang, Y. Chen and M. Chen, "The Self-Tuning Neural Speed Regulator Applied to DC Servo Motor," Third International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC 2007), 2007, pp. 44-52, doi: 10.1109/ICNC.2007.743.
R. S. Ankushe, A. G. Thosar, A. Y. Bansode and V. V. Hande, "Multiple SVS system for voltage regulation by using direct self tuning regulator," 2016 2nd International Conference on Advances in Electrical, Electronics, Information, Communication and Bio-Informatics (AEEICB), 2016, pp. 331-335, doi: 10.1109/AEEICB.2016.7538303.
M. Nascimento Moutinho, C. T. da Costa, W. Barra and J. Augusto Lima Barreiros, "Self-tunning Control Methodologies Applied to the Automatic Voltage Control of a Synchronous Generator," in IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 408-418, Sept. 2008, doi: 10.1109/TLA.2008.4839110.
Y. Li, S. Liang, B. Xu and M. Hou, "Predefined-time asymptotic tracking control for hypersonic flight vehicles with input quantization and faults," in IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, doi: 10.1109/TAES.2021.3068442.
B. D. Skurdal and R. L. Gaigler, "Multimission Electromagnetic Launcher," in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 458-461, Jan. 2009, doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2008.2008551.
R. J. Kaye, B. N. Turman and S. L. Shope, "Applications of coilgun electromagnetic propulsion technology," Conference Record of the Twenty-Fifth International Power Modulator Symposium, 2002 and 2002 High-Voltage Workshop., 2002, pp. 703-707, doi: 10.1109/MODSYM.2002.1189573.
J. -. Mathieu, G. Beaudoin and S. Martel, "Method of propulsion of a ferromagnetic core in the cardiovascular system through magnetic gradients generated by an MRI system," in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 292-299, Feb. 2006, doi: 10.1109/TBME.2005.862570.
O. Y. Kanner, D. Shilo, J. Sheng, R. D. James, and Y. Ganor, "Ferromagnetic shape memory flapper for remotely actuated propulsion systems," in Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 22, no. 8, p. 085030, aug. 2013, doi: 10.1088/0964-1726/22/8/085030.
A. Cassat and M. Jufer, "MAGLEV projects technology aspects and choices," in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 915-925, March 2002, doi: 10.1109/TASC.2002.1018549.
J. Suardiaz Muro, B. M. Al-Hadithi and A. Iborra Garcia, "Self-Tuning Controller for Flow Rate Liquid System," in IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 332-338, Sept. 2006, doi: 10.1109/TLA.2006.4472132.
K. Kim, P. Rao and J. A. Burnworth, "Self-Tuning of the PID Controller for a Digital Excitation Control System," in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1518-1524, July-Aug. 2010, doi: 10.1109/TIA.2010.2049631.
K. S. Narendra and J. Balakrishnan, "Adaptive control using multiple models," in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 171-187, Feb. 1997, doi: 10.1109/9.554398.
W. J. Rugh and J. S. Shamma, "Research on gain scheduling," in Automatica, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1401-1425, oct, 2000, doi: 10.1016/S0005-1098(00)00058-3.
I. Masubuchi and Y. Fujimoto, "On robust synthesis of gain-scheduled controllers under stochastic measurement noise on the scheduling parameter," Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference 2010, 2010, pp. 3043-3045.
Z. -. Zhao, M. Tomizuka and S. Isaka, "Fuzzy gain scheduling of PID controllers," [Proceedings 1992] The First IEEE Conference on Control Applications, 1992, pp. 698-703 vol.2, doi: 10.1109/CCA.1992.269762.
J. S. Shamma and M. Athans, "Gain scheduling: potential hazards and possible remedies," in IEEE Control Systems Magazine, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 101-107, June 1992, doi: 10.1109/37.165527.
K. Jouili and H. Jerbi, "A Computationally Lyapunov Nonlinear Gain Scheduling Control of Nonlinear Systems with Stability Guarantees," 2009 11th International Conference on Computer Modelling and Simulation, 2009, pp. 374-379, doi: 10.1109/UKSIM.2009.68.
T. Ylöstalo and H. Hyötyniemi, "Model library based adaptive control — Implementation aspects," 1999 European Control Conference (ECC), 1999, pp. 3065-3069, doi: 10.23919/ECC.1999.7099796.
Q. Wang and G. Chen, "Robust Gain Scheduling Control for Linear Systems with Input Saturation," 2016 8th International Conference on Intelligent Human-Machine Systems and Cybernetics (IHMSC), 2016, pp. 142-146, doi: 10.1109/IHMSC.2016.44.
Kong Xiangxing, He Ai and Wang Xi, "An aeroengine state variable model based on gain scheduling technique," 2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM 2010), 2010, pp. V9-589-V9-592, doi: 10.1109/ICCASM.2010.5622964.
H. Zhou, H. Pei and B. Chen, "Observer-Based Gain Scheduling Control of Robotic Helicopter," 2009 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence, 2009, pp. 297-302, doi: 10.1109/AICI.2009.78.
P. Hang, X. Xia and X. Chen, "Handling Stability Advancement With 4WS and DYC Coordinated Control: A Gain-Scheduled Robust Control Approach," in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 3164-3174, April 2021, doi: 10.1109/TVT.2021.3065106.
D. Garcia Garcia, J. Peña Martín, Y. Valeriano Medina and L. Hernández Santana, "Navigation System With Adaptive Disturbances Compensation for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle," in IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1741-1751, October 2019, doi: 10.1109/TLA.2019.8986453.
S. W. Zhao, N. C. Cheung, W. Gan, J. M. Yang and J. F. Pan, "A Self-Tuning Regulator for the High-Precision Position Control of a Linear Switched Reluctance Motor," in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 2425-2434, Oct. 2007, doi: 10.1109/TIE.2007.900348.
A. Naderolasli and M. Ataei, "Stabilization of A Two-DOF Gimbal System Using Direct Self-Tuning Regulator," ijeei, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 33-44, mar. 2020, doi: 10.15676/ijeei.2020.12.1.3.
M. J. Gomes Silva, C. Silva Araujo, S. T. Marques Bezerra, C. Rocha Souto, S. Arnaud Silva and H. Pimentel Gomes, "Generalized Minimum Variance Control for Water Distribution System," in IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 651-658, March 2015, doi: 10.1109/TLA.2015.7069088.
S. Z. Rad, S. K. H. Sani and A. Akbarzadeh, "Designing a self-tuning regulator controller for a non-linear and MIMO Exoskeleton system assist test setup with adaptive decoupling," 2019 7th International Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ICRoM), 2019, pp. 445-450, doi: 10.1109/ICRoM48714.2019.9071900.
I. Grigorov, N. Atanasov and Z. Zhekov, "Comparation in application of recursive estimation and control of the real DC motor parameters in adaptive pole placement control system and adaptive system with self-tuning regulator with minimum variance," 2020 International Conference Automatics and Informatics (ICAI), 2020, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/ICAI50593.2020.9311296.
Cs. Bányász and L. Keviczky, "Direct Methods for Self-Tuning PID Regulators," IFAC Proceedings Volumes, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1395-1400, jun. 1982, doi: 10.1016/S1474-6670(17)63193-8.
K. J. Astrom and B. Witternmark, "Adaptive Control," Ed. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995.
Lei Guo and Han-Fu Chen, "The AAstrom-Wittenmark self-tuning regulator revisited and ELS-based adaptive trackers," in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 802-812, July 1991, doi: 10.1109/9.85060.