Low-Loss Polarization-Agile U-Band Switch
Keywords:P-i-n diodes, circular waveguide, millimeter wave devices, Switches, Microwave commutation
A low-loss U-band polarization-agile single pole single throw (SPST) circular waveguide switch with filtering capability is presented. This switch contains a diaphragm based on a ring slot with p-i-n diode switchable radial stubs situated at the cross-section of a circular waveguide. Commutation of the p-i-n diodes permits the control of the transmission characteristics for the incident linearly polarized wave with different orientations of its polarization vector. Due to the application of an original hybrid technology for the diaphragm fabrication, an insertion loss of 0.45 dB and an isolation of 20.6 dB are obtained near the central frequency of 50.0 GHz. The developed SPST switch is suitable for the usage in the antenna block of modern millimeter-wave receivers with polarization reuse due to the ultra-low insertion loss.
L. Kuang, X. Yu, H. Jia, L. Chen, W. Zhu, M. Wei, Z. Song, Z. Wang, and B. Chi, “A Fully integrated 60-GHz 5-GB/s GPSK Transceiver with T/R switch in 65-nm CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 3131–3145, Dec 2014.
M. Zhang, K. Toyosaki, J. Hirokawa, M. Ando, T. Taniguchi, and M. Noda, “A 60-GHz Band Compact-Range Gigabit Wireless Access System Using Large Array Antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 3432–3440, Aug 2015.
A. Cornejo and S. Landeros, “Simulation Model and Comparison for Satellite Links in Ku and Ka Bands for Standards-Based on dvb-s2 and ns3,” IEEE Lat. Am. T., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1689–1697, Apr 2016.
J. Lee, R.-B. Lai, C.-C. Chen, C.-S. Lin, K.-Y. Lin, C.-C. Chiong, and H. Wang, “Low Insertion-Loss Single-Pole Double-Throw Reduced-Size Quarter-Wavelength HEMT Bandpass Filter Integrated Switches,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 3028–3038, Dec 2008.
K. Ma, S. Mou, and K. S. Yeo, “A Miniaturized Millimeter-Wave Standing-Wave Filtering Switch with High P1db,” IEEE Trans. Microw.
Theory Tech., vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1505–1515, Apr 2013.
D. Zelenchuk, V. Fusco, and G. Goussetis, “V-Band (57–66 GHz) Planar Antennas for WPAN Applications,” in Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), April 2011, pp. 3122–3125.
A. F. Ismail, N. W. M. Saad, K. Badron, W. Hashim, and K. Abdullah, “Performance Prediction of Future V-band Earth-Space Link in the Tropics,” in 2012 International Symposium on Telecommunication Technologies, Nov 2012, pp. 187–191.
E. Jose, M. Adams, J. S. Mullane, and N. M. Patrikalakis, “Predicting Millimeter Wave Radar Spectra for Autonomous Navigation,” IEEE Sensors J., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 960–971, May 2010.
J. He, Y.-Z. Xiong, and Y. P. Zhang, “Analysis and Design of 60-GHz SPDT Switch in 130-nm CMOS,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 3113–3119, Oct 2012.
X.-L. Tang, E. Pistono, P. Ferrari, and J.-M. Fournier, “A Traveling-Wave CMOS SPDT Using Slow-Wave Transmission Lines for Millimeter-Wave Application,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1094–1096, Sept 2013.
C. W. Byeon and C. S. Park, “Design and Analysis of the Millimeter-Wave SPDT Switch for TDD applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 2858–2864, Aug 2013.
M. Uzunkol and G. Rebeiz, “A Low-Loss 50-70 GHz SPDT Switch in 90 nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2003–2007, Oct 2010.
A. Hamidian, S. E. Barbin, and G. Boeck, “Fully Differential Switching Topology for mm-Wave Dual-Mode LO-Distribution Circuitry,” Electron. Lett., vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 1028–1030, 2016.
R. Shu and Q. J. Gu, “A Transformer-Based V -band SPDT switch,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 278–280, Mar 2017.
Y. Um and C. Nguyen, “High-Isolation Multimode Multifunction 24/60-GHz CMOS Dual-Bandpass Filtering T/R switch,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 696–698, Aug 2018.
R. Shu, J. Li, A. Tang, B. J. Drouin, and Q. J. Gu, “Coupling-Inductor-Based Hybrid mm-Wave CMOS SPST Switch,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 367–371, Apr 2017.
L. Zhao, W. Liang, J. Zhou, and X. Jiang, “Compact 35–70 GHz SPDT Switch with High Isolation for High Power Application,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 485–487, May 2017.
M. Thian and V. Fusco, “Ultrafast Low-Loss 42-70 GHz Differential SPDT Switch in 0.35 m SiGe Technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 655–659, March 2012.
S. Gao, H. Lin, L. Ge, and D. Zhang, “A Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna with Switchable Circular Polarization,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 40 013–40 018, 2019.
C. Kumar, B. P. Kumar, V. S. Kumar, and V. V. Srinivasan, “Dual Circularly Polarized Spherical Phased-Array Antenna for Spacecraft Application,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 598–605, Feb 2013.
W. Hong, K. Baek, and S. Ko, “Millimeter-Wave 5G Antennas for Smartphones: Overview and Experimental Demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 6250–6261, Dec 2017.
O. Jo, J. Kim, J. Yoon, D. Choi, and W. Hong, “Exploitation of Dual-Polarization Diversity for 5G Millimeter-Wave MIMO Beamforming Systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 6646–6655, Dec 2017.
S. Shekhar, K. J. Vinoy, and G. K. Ananthasuresh, “Surface-Micromachined Capacitive RF Switches with Low Actuation Voltage and Steady Contact,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 643–652, June 2017.
Z. Baghchehsaraei, U. Shah, J. Aberg, G. Stemme, and J. Oberhammer, “MEMS Reconfigurable Millimeter-Wave Surface for V-band Rectangular- Waveguide Switch,” International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 341–349, Mar 2013.
Z. Baghchehsaraei and J. Oberhammer, “Parameter Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Waveguide Switch Based on a MEMS-Reconfigurable Surface,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 4396–4406, Dec 2013.
A. Martinez-Lopez, J. Rodriguez-Cuevas, J. Martinez-Lopez, and A. Martynyuk, “X-band Circular Waveguide Switch with Polarisation Diversity,” Electron. Lett., vol. 44, no. 20, pp. 1201–1202, September 2008.
A. Martynyuk, A. Martinez-Lopez, and J. Martinez Lopez, “2-bit X-band Reflective Waveguide Phase Shifter with BCB-Based Bias Circuits,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 4056–4061, Dec 2006.