Control proposal for photovoltaic inverters with reactive power supply for voltage stability during momentary sags and in steady state



current saturation, distributed generation, electrical energy quality, momentary sag


This work aims to present a control proposal for dual-stage photovoltaic inverters to supply reactive power aiming at voltage stability in steady state and during short-term momentary sags. For this, a study was carried out on the control and modeling techniques of the DC/DC and DC/AC converters of the photovoltaic generating unit, in addition, a modified MPPT algorithm was implemented that, together with an AVR system, will manage the power in transient regime, decreasing the active power and increasing the reactive power in order to restore the voltage level in the grid. In addition, the dynamic saturation of the current in the switches and the power of the inverter was carried out so that they operate within their nominal limits. The entire system was executed in a computational environment on the Matlab/Simulink platform. Satisfactory results were obtained regarding the supply of reactive power and assistance in voltage restoration carried out by distributed generation during momentary sag.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Luccas Soares, Universidade Federal de Itajubá - Campus Itabira

Graduating in Electrical Engineering at the Federal University of Itajubá - Campus Itabira. Technical course in Industrial Automation by SENAI - National Industrial Learning Service (2015 - 2017) with emphasis on electrical drives and industrial control.

Arthur Souza, Universidade Federal de Itajubá - Campus Itabira

Completed his graduation in 2014 from the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), master's (2016) and doctorate (2020) from the same institution. He is currently a professor at the Federal University of Itajubá (UNIFEI – campus Itabira) in Electrical Engineering. His research focuses on photovoltaic systems connected to the electrical grid with energy storage.

Anderson Piccini, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Paraná - Campus Paranavaí

PhD in Electrical Engineering from the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU) (2022). He served as an effective professor at the Federal Institute of Tocantins. He is currently an Effective Professor at the Federal Institute of Paraná (IFPR) Campus Paranavaí in the industry area.

Ivan Santos, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia

Born on 07/13/1979, in Prata-MG, he is an electrical engineer (2005), master (2007) and doctor (2011) in Electrical Engineering from the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU). In 2014 he finished his postdoctoral internship at Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Netherlands. He is a professor and researcher at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at UFU.


Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica, “Infográfico Interativo da Geração Distribuída”, ANEEL, Brasília, DF, Brasil, 22, Dec. 22, 2022. [Online]. Available:

Associação Brasileira de Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, “Infográfico Geração Fotovoltaica no Brasil”, ABSOLAR, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, 22, Dec. 22, 2022. [Online]. Available:

R. C. Dugan, S. Santoso, “Electrical Power Systems Quality”, 2. ed., McGraw - Hill, 2002.

Procedimentos de distribuição de energia elétrica no sistema elétrico nacional – PRODIST: módulo 8: qualidade do fornecimento de energia elétrica, ANEEL 956, 2021.

IEEE Recommended Practice for Voltage Sag and Short Interruption Ride-Through Testing for End-Use Electrical Equipment Rated Less than 1000 V, IEEE Standard 1668, 2017.

B. H. Wijaya and N. Hariyanto, "Risk Cost Analysis and Impact of Dip Voltage, Case Study of The Food and Beverage Industry in East Java," 2019 2nd International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Power Systems (ICHVEPS), Denpasar, Indonesia, 2019, pp. 062-066, doi: 10.1109/ICHVEPS47643.2019.9011037.

F. Trindade, J. C. Vieira and K. Nascimento, "Investigation on voltage sags caused by DG anti-islanding protection," 2014 IEEE PES General Meeting | Conference & Exposition, National Harbor, MD, USA, 2014, pp. 1-1, doi: 10.1109/PESGM.2014.6939360.

IEEE Standard for Interconnection and Interoperability of Distributed Energy Resources with Associated Electric Power Systems Interfaces, IEEE Standard 1547, 2018.

Sistemas Fotovoltaicos (FV) - Características de interface com de conexão com a rede elétrica de distribuição, ABNT 16149, 2014.

Empresa de Pesquisa Energética, “Nota Técnica: serviços ancilares sob a ótica de planejamento e expansão”, EPE, Brasília, DF, Brasil, 22, Dec. 22, 2022. [Online]. Available: abertos/publicacoes/PublicacoesArquivos/publicacao-633/EPE-DEE NT-090-2021-r0_Servicos%20Ancilares.pdf

Mohan Lal Kolhe, M.J.M.A. Rasul, 3-Phase grid-connected building integrated photovoltaic system with reactive power control capability, Renewable Energy, Volume 154, 2020, Pages 1065-1075, ISSN 0960-1481,

Vinit Kumar, Mukesh Singh,Reactive power compensation using derated power generation mode of modified P&O algorithm in grid-interfaced PV system, Renewable Energy,Volume 178, 2021,Pages 108-117, ISSN 0960-1481,

A. R. Piccini, “Sistema fotovoltaico conectado à rede trifásica com controle das potências ativa e reativa para mitigar o afundamento momentâneo de tensão,” Ph.D. dissertation, Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica. Universidade Federal de Uberlândia., Uberlância., 2022.

Ali Q. Al-Shetwi, Muhamad Zahim Sujod, Frede Blaabjerg,Low voltage ride-through capability control for single-stage inverter-based grid-connected photovoltaic power plant, Solar Energy, Volume 159, 2018, Pages 665-681, ISSN 0038-092X,

Nie Xiong, Xie Yunxiang, Chen Bing, Zhang Xiaoyu, Hei Chenyang and Zeng Zhiwu, "A low-voltage ride-through strategy for three-phase distributed generation inverters during voltage sags," 2016 IEEE 8th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC-ECCE Asia), 2016, pp. 933-938, doi: 10.1109/IPEMC.2016.7512412.

K. Ogata, “Modern Control Engineering”, 5 ed, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 2010.

G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell, M. Workman, “Digital Control of Dynamics System”, 3. ed., –Ellis Kangle Press, 1997.

P. Rodriguez, J. Pou, J. Bergas, J. I. Candela, R. P. Burgos and D. Boroyevich, "Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame PLL for Power Converters Control," in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 584-592, March 2007, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2006.890000.

M. Liserre, F. Blaabjerg and S. Hansen, "Design and control of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier," in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1281-1291, Sept.-Oct. 2005, doi: 10.1109/TIA.2005.853373.

H. Akagi, E. H. Watanabe, M. Aredes, 2007. Instantaneous power theory and applications to power conditioning. IEEE Press series on power engineering. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley ; IEEE Press.

Padula, Fabrizio & Visioli, Antonio & Pagnoni, Manuel. “On the Anti-windup Schemes for Fractional-order PID controllers”. IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2012, ETFA. 10.1109/ETFA.2012.6489758.

IEEE Recommended Practice for Excitation System Models for Power System Stability Studies, IEEE Standard 421.5, 2016.

M. J. Ponoćko, “Data Analytics Based Demand Profiling and Advanced Demand Side Management for Flexible Operation of Sustainable Power Networks”, Electrical And Electronic Engineering, School Of Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Manchester, 2019



How to Cite

Soares, L. ., Souza, A., Piccini, A., & Santos, I. (2023). Control proposal for photovoltaic inverters with reactive power supply for voltage stability during momentary sags and in steady state. IEEE Latin America Transactions, 100(XXX). Retrieved from



Special Issue on Sustainable Energy Sources for an Energy Transition