Development of an Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting System Based on a Current Transformer for Use in Industrial Electric Motors



Energy Harvesting, Current Transformer, EMF, Ultra Low-Power


Predictive maintenance systems for industrial electric motors are being developed using electronic sensors and wireless communication systems incorporated into ultra-low consumption electronic circuits. If the electronic circuit is ultra-low consumption, a simple low-capacity rechargeable battery can power the system for years. However, the use of batteries on a large scale contributes to environmental pollution. To eliminate the use of batteries, several energy harvesting techniques are being used to make the electronic sensors self-sustaining. In this sense, this paper presents the development of an electromagnetic energy harvesting system based on an off-the-shelf Current Transformer (CT), with the energy management done via Integrated Circuit (IC), for use in an Internet of Things (IoT) vibration monitoring system for industrial electric motors. A process was carried out to maximize energy generation through the design of a resonant frequency tuning capacitor, optimization of the electronic circuit for energy harvesting by adjusting a shunt resistor, and energy management based on the LTC3108 IC. The resulting energy harvesting system could generate a maximum output power of 1.657 mW, representing a percentage difference of +590.42 % of the system load power consumption, it is equivalent to about 6.90 times more than the necessary to make the IoT device energetically autonomous.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Luiz Oliveira, University of Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

Luiz Fernando Pinto de Oliveira (M'19) graduated in Electronic Engineering, with Academic Merit, from Federal University of Technology of Paraná (UTFPR, 2017), M.Sc. degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering with specialization in Autonomous Systems from the School of Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Porto (ISEP-IPP, 2017), and M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering with specialization in Electronics, Microelectronics and Optoelectronics from the University of Campinas (Unicamp, 2020). He is currently pursuing Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering at the Unicamp. His research interests are: sensor electronic circuits, microcontroller systems, smart devices, wireless sensor networks, internet of things, smart cities, energy harvesting, robotics, legged robots and hexapod robots. Mr. Oliveira is a Student Member of the Brazilian Automation Society (SBA) and Effective Associate of the Brazilian Society of Microelectronics (SBMicro).

Pedro Chaves, University of Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

Pedro Rinaldo Chaves received a B.Eng. in Telecommunication Engineering from the South Bank University, London, UK, in 2001 and a master´s in Network Management from the Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, Brazil, in 2016. From 2010 to 2016, he joined ATT Brazil as a network specialist where he developed network projects and dealt with remote problem solving and preventive network maintenance activities. Since 2018, he has been researching in the field of wireless sensor networks while pursuing his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering at the University of Campinas.

Ana Mozena, Faculty of Science and Engineering, São Paulo State University (UNESP)

Ana Laura Klaic Mozena received the B.S. degree in Biosystems Engineering from the Faculty of Sciences and Engineering of the Paulista State University Júlio de Mesquita, Tupã, Brazil, in 2019. She currently works as an intern at Techplus, participating in the iMachine Wireless Project funded by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP). Her current research interests include: energy measurement, energy harvesting, embedded systems and sensor networks.

Omar Branquinho, PoB-Tec and the Extension Program School (EXTECAMP) from the University of Campinas

Omar Carvalho Branquinho has a degree in Electrical Engineering from the National Institute of Telecommunication (1985), a master´s (1991) and a Ph.D. (2001) in Electrical Engineering, both from the University of Campinas. His areas of interest include planning and developing wireless sensor networks (WSN), and functions of edge elements (gateway) for connection between WSN and the Internet. He has developed an open source WSN protocol (MoT) for teaching and research.

Flávio Morais, Faculty of Science and Engineering, São Paulo State University (UNESP)

Flávio José de Oliveira Morais received the B.S. degree in Computing Engineering from the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil, in 2009, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, in 2011 and 2016, respectively. He is currently an Assistant Professor with the Faculty of Sciences and Engineering, São Paulo State University Júlio de Mesquita, Tupã, Brazil. He is the author of more than 40 articles. His current research interests include electronics instrumentation, energy metering, embedded systems, energy harvesting, and sensors networks.

Leandro Manera, University of Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

Leandro Tiago Manera graduated in Electrical Engineering Lins Engineering School (EEL, 1999), and received his M.Sc. (2002) and Ph.D. (2010) in Electrical Engineering from University of Campinas (Unicamp), in Brazil. Currently he is a Professor in electrical and computer engineering in Semiconductors, Instruments and Photonics Department at School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (DSIF/FEEC/Unicamp). He is also responsible for the Laboratory of Electronic and RF Solutions (LSERF) at FEEC. He is the author of more than 60 articles, and more than 5 inventions. His research interests include RF measurements, semiconductors devices and antenna design. Dr. Manera was President of the Student Chapter of the IEEE Electron Device Society at Unicamp from 2005 to 2006.


ELETROBRAS, “Relatório de resultados do procel 2021: ano-base

.”, 2021.

Online; accessed 10 January 2023.

R. B. A. d. Oliveira and S. A. C. Andrade, “Noções de manutenção

das instalações agroindustriais.”

/uploads/2013/06/Instalacoes_Agroindustriais.pdf, 2012. Online; accessed

January 2023.

J. Schreiner and A. Stark, “Iot basics: What is predictive


iot-basics-what-is-predictive-maintenance-a-820638/, 2019. Online;

accessed 10 January 2023.

M. Markiewicz, M. Wielgosz, M. Boche´nski, W. Tabaczy´nski,

T. Konieczny, and L. Kowalczyk, “Predictive maintenance of induction

motors using ultra-low power wireless sensors and compressed recurrent

neural networks,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 178891–178902, 2019.

P. K. Ivar Koene, Raine Viitala, “Internet of things based monitoring of

large rotor vibrating with a microelectromechanical system accelerometer,”

IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 92210–92219, 2019.

R. V. Ivar Koene, Ville Klar, “Iot connected device for vibration analysis

and measurement,” HardwareX, vol. 7, pp. 1–15, 2020.

W. W. Peter Luong, “Smart sensor-based synergistic analysis for rotor

bar fault detection of induction motors,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Mechatronics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 1067–1075, 2020.

P. S. K. Samuel Jiménez, Matthew O. T. Cole, “Vibration sensing in

smart machine rotors using internal mems accelerometers,” Journal of

Sound and Vibration, vol. 377, pp. 58–75, 2016.

E. Noyjeen, C. Tanita, N. Panthasarn, P. Chansri, and J. Pukkham,

“Monitoring parameters of three-phase induction motor using iot,” in

th International Electrical Engineering Congress (iEECON), 2021.

B. K. Mehmet ¸ Sen, “Iot-based wireless induction motor monitoring,” in

XXVI International Scientific Conference Electronics (ET), 2017.

S. Sridhar, K. U. Rao, M. S. Nihaal, and A. K. S. Aashik, “Real time

wireless condition monitoring of induction motor,” in IEEE Industrial

Electronics and Applications Conference (IEACon), 2016.

L. Y. Liqun Hou, “Machine fault diagnosis using industrial wireless

sensor networks and on-sensor wavelet transform,” in IECON 2017 -

rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society,

R. S. Carbajo, E. S. Carbajo, B. Basu, and C. M. Goldrick, “Routing in

wireless sensor networks for wind turbine monitoring,” Pervasive and

Mobile Computing, vol. 39, pp. 1–35, 2017.

P. P. Kulkarni, M. Patil, S. Shibi, M. Patle, and R. Kale, “Review

on online monitoring of electrical machine using iot,” in International

Conference on Nascent Technologies in Engineering (ICNTE), 2019.

V. R. K. Ramachandran, A. S. Ramirez, B. J. van der Zwaag, N. Meratnia,

and P. Havinga, “Energy-efficient on-node signal processing for

vibration monitoring,” in 2014 IEEE Ninth International Conference

on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing

(ISSNIP), pp. 1–6, 2014.

A. A. Conte, “Reverse logistic, recycling and eco-efficiency of the batteries:

Review,” Brazilian Journal of Environmental Sciences (Online),

p. 124–139, Mar. 2016.

R. F. Rogério Falasca Alexandrino and A. Bortoletto, “Planning and

development of a socioscientific teaching sequence on the evaluation of

the life cycle of lithium batteries,” in XIII Encontro Nacional de Pesquisa

em Educação em Ciências – XIII ENPEC, pp. 1–9, 2021.

D. A. O. Faria and A. L. Oliveira, “Considerações sobre o descarte e

reciclagem de pilhas e baterias no brasil.”

interfacetecnologica/article/view/667, 2019. Online; accessed 10 January

M. Khazaee, A. Rezaniakolaie, A. Moosavian, and L. Rosendahl, “A

novel method for autonomous remote condition monitoring of rotating

machines using piezoelectric energy harvesting approach,” Sensors and

Actuators A: Physical, vol. 295, pp. 37–50, 2019.

M. Iqbal, M. M. Nauman, F. U. Khan, P. E. Abas, Q. Cheok, A. Iqbal,

and B. Aissa, “Vibration-based piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and hybrid

energy harvesters for microsystems applications: A contributed

review,” International Journal of Energy Research, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 65–

, 2021.

G. Clementi, G. Lombardi, S. Margueron, M. A. Suarez, E. Lebrasseur,

S. Ballandras, J. Imbaud, F. Lardet-Vieudrin, L. Gauthier-

Manuel, B. Dulmet, M. Lallart, and A. Bartasyte, “Linbo3 films –

a low-cost alternative lead-free piezoelectric material for vibrational

energy harvesters,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 149,

p. 107171, 2021.

F. Guo, H. Hayat, and J. Wang, “Energy harvesting devices for high

voltage transmission line monitoring,” in 2011 IEEE Power and Energy

Society General Meeting, pp. 1–8, 2011.

J.-P. Lecointe, F. Morganti, J.-F. Brudny, T. Jacq, and F. Streiff, “Energy

harvesting from the external magnetic flux generated by ac electrical

rotating machines,” Przegla˛d Elektrotechniczny, vol. 88, no. 7b, pp. 94–

, 2012.

L. J. Hernandes Jr, L. C. Duarte, F. O. Morais, E. C. Ferreira, and

J. A. Siqueira, “Optimizing the inspection routine for the detection of

electrical energy theft in aes eletropaulo in são paulo, brazil,” WSEAS

Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 81–89, 2001.

F. J. d. O. Morais, Proposal and development of a non-intrusive

system, based on energy harvesting, for fraud detection in electrical

installations. PhD thesis, University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo,


J. P. Amaro, R. Cortesão, J. Landeck, and F. J. Ferreira, “Harvested

power wireless sensor network solution for disaggregated current estimation

in large buildings,” IEEE Transactions on instrumentation and

measurement, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 1847–1857, 2015.

J. P. Amaro, F. J. T. E. Ferreira, R. Cortesão, and J. Landeck, “Energy

harvesting for zigbee compliant wireless sensor network nodes,” in

IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics

Society, pp. 2583–2588, 2012.

J. Ahola, T. Ahonen, V. Sarkimaki, A. Kosonen, J. Tamminen,

R. Tiainen, and T. Lindh, “Design considerations for current transformer

based energy harvesting for electronics attached to electric motor,” in

international symposium on power electronics, electrical drives,

automation and motion, pp. 901–905, IEEE, 2008.

A. Kosonen and J. Ahola, “Communication concept for sensors at

an inverter-fed electric motor utilizing power-line communication and

energy harvesting,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 25, no. 4,

pp. 2406–2413, 2010.

P. Li, Y. Wen, Z. Zhang, and S. Pan, “A high-efficiency management

circuit using multiwinding upconversion current transformer for powerline

energy harvesting,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,

vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 6327–6335, 2015.

S.-E. Adami, V. Marian, N. Degrenne, C. Vollaire, B. Allard, and

F. Costa, “Self-powered ultra-low power dc-dc converter for rf energy

harvesting,” in 2012 IEEE Faible Tension Faible Consommation, pp. 1–

, 2012.

I. Gornevs, J. Blums, and V. Jurkans, “Performance analysis of low

voltage converters for completely integrable wearable human motion

energy harvester,” in 2018 16th Biennial Baltic Electronics Conference

(BEC), pp. 1–4, 2018.

L. F. P. Oliveira, P. R. Chaves, R. Gasparini, F. Ortolano, M. M. d. S.

Rodrigueiro, F. J. d. O. Morais, and L. T. Manera, “A technique to

evaluate the directivity of pcb antennas in wireless sensor networks,”

in III Brazilian Congress of Development - 2022, vol. 1, pp. 345–357,

A. Devices, “Ultralow voltage step-up converter and power manager.”

LTC3108.pdf, 2019. Online; accessed 11 January 2023.

Y. E. Corp., “Clamp on current transformers datasheet.” http://www., 2010.

Online; accessed 12 January 2023.



How to Cite

Oliveira, L. ., Chaves, P. ., Mozena, A. ., Branquinho, O. ., Morais, F., & Manera, L. . (2023). Development of an Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting System Based on a Current Transformer for Use in Industrial Electric Motors. IEEE Latin America Transactions, 100(XXX). Retrieved from



Special Issue on Sustainable Energy Sources for an Energy Transition