Forced Response of Thermoelectric Materials and Devices



Figure of merit, thermoelectric angular frequency, thermoelectric characterization, thermoelectric time constant


The theory of the forced response of electric circuits applied to the study of the thermoelectricity here described allows the characterization of thermoelectric devices and materials determining the resistance of the thermal contacts, and the thermoelectric resistance. The successive computer analysis yields values for the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistance, thermal conductance, and the figure of merit. The forced response of the thermoelectric materials and devices satisfies the Luttinger’s thermal transport coefficients theory, and the first-order electric circuits’s behavior. Also, permits to find the thermoelectric time constant, and predicting the thermoelectric angular frequency which is necessary to determinate the complex impedance graphically through the Nyquist plot, due to that the thermoelectric time constant is inversely proportional to the thermoelectric angular frequency, as well as it makes accessible the prediction of the impedance spectroscopy measurements beyond the restrictive case of adiabatic boundary conditions regularly difficult to achieve experimentally, and therefore the characterization in situ. Like Harman’s method, these parameters can be measured simultaneously on the same device or sample, and no requires neither reference nor standard material for comparison.


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Author Biographies

Mr. Ronald Pirela , IEEE Membership

Pirela R. (Author),  es graduado en Ingeniería Electrónica en UNEXPO en 2007, Especialización en Telecomunicaciones Digitales en UNEXPO en 2013, Maestría en Ingeniería Electrónica en UNEXPO en 2020. Y se convirtió en miembro (M) del IEEE en 2021, (M’21, M’22). Fué preparador adscrito tanto al Departamento de Física como al Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica y ahora es Doctorante del Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias de la Ingeniería, Departamento de Investigación y Postgrado, Universidad Nacional Experimental Politécnica “Antonio José de Sucre” (UNEXPO), Vicerrectorado Puerto Ordaz, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. Actualmente es el Ingeniero del Laboratorio de Trenes a Hidrogeno, Proyecto Coradia, Alstom Ferroviaria S.p.A., Savigliano, CN 12038, Italia. (e-mail: ORCID: 0000-0002-1411-6333.

Mr. Sergio Velásquez

Velásquez S. (Coautor), es graduado en Ingeniería Electrónica en UNEXPO en 2008, Maestría en Educación en el UPEL en 2011, Maestría en Ingeniería Electrónica en UNEXPO en 2012, Doctor en Educación 2015, Doctor en Ciencias de la Ingeniería en la UNEXPO en 2019. En la actualidad, él es Profesor Adscrito al Departamento de Investigación y Postgrado de la UNEXPO y el Coordinador del Centro de Investigación de las Redes Neuronales Artificiales y La Robótica, Profesor Investigador B, avalado por el MINCYT. ORCID: 0000-0002-3516-4430


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How to Cite

Pirela La Cruz, R. E., & Velásquez Guzmán, S. R. (2022). Forced Response of Thermoelectric Materials and Devices. IEEE Latin America Transactions, 20(8), 2106–2113. Retrieved from



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