Primary Frequency Control in an Ancillary Services Market in Real Time and its Relationship with Solar-Wind Generation
Keywords:Ancillary Service, Primary Control Frequency, Renewable Generation, Real Time Operation
In Chile, the operation and market of renewable solar-wind generation and conventional gas-coal-diesel-hydraulic generation is made up of two electric generation systems that are managed in a complementary manner and currently interconnected under the name of “Sistema Eléctrico Nacional”, counting on the greatest potential and solar development in South America. However, the real-time operation is carried out by the Dispatch and Control Center, which treats them as two independent electrical generation systems in terms of supervision and control. The system faces the challenge associated with the massive potential and development of solar-wind generation concentrated in the northern area of Chile. This creates difficulties in its technical operation, especially in frequency control and the complexity of modeling in real-time the changing market for complementary services. Therefore, the primary frequency control is the complementary service that acts as the first action and line of defense to allow the system to integrate large blocks of renewable energy. It is necessary to deliver a minimum of dynamic reserves in times of ten seconds and five minutes to avoid the operation of stages of load disconnection / generation due to low / over frequency in front of large power disconnections of gas-fired plants (520 MW), hydraulic of reservoir (700 MW) and coal (380 MW) or loss of demand from large mining processes (300, 500 and 600 MW) for systemic frequency variations that should not exceed ± 0.7 [Hz].
Informe GO-SEN N°29/2019, “Reglas de Operación SSCC en Tiempo Real,” Coordinador Eléctrico Nacional, Santiago, 2019. Available in: https://www.coordinador.cl/.
Informe GO-SEN N°30/2019, “Modelación de Servicios Complementarios de Frecuencia,” Coordinador Eléctrico Nacional, Santiago, 2019. Available in: https://www.coordinador.cl/.
Comisión Nacional de Energía, “Norma Técnica de Servicios Complementarios,” Comisión Nacional de Energía, Santiago, 2019. Available in: https://www.cne.cl/normativas/electrica/normas-tecnicas/.
C. Sun, Z. Mi, H. Ren, F. Wang, J. Chen, D. Watts and J. Lu, “Study on the incentives mechanism for the development of distributed photovoltaic systems from a long-term perspective,” Energies, vol. 11, pp. 1-18, May. 2018.
R. Odeh and D. Watts, “Impacts of wind and solar spatial diversification on its market value: A case study of the Chilean electricity market,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 111, pp. 442-461, Sep. 2019.
H. Ren, J. Ortega and D. Watts, “Review of operating reserves and Day-Ahead unit commitment considering variable renewable energies: International Experience,” IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 15, pp. 2126-2136, Nov. 2017.
J. Ortega and D. Watts, “Operating reserves and unit commitment considering variable renewable energies: An Academic Review,” IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 15, pp. 2108-2119, Nov. 2017.
I. Chaparro, D. Watts and E. Gil, “Modeling marginal CO2 emissions in hydrothermal systems: Efficient carbon signals for renewables,” Applied Energy, vol. 204, pp. 318-331, Oct. 2017.
C. Agostini, S. Nasirov and C. Silva, “The role of frequency regulation remuneration schemes in an energy matrix with high penetration of renewable energy,” Renewable Energy, vol. 171, pp. 1097-1114, Jun. 2021.
O. Moya, A. Arancibia and R. Palma, “Despacho unificado de energía eléctrica y servicios complementarios mediante flujo de potencia óptimo (OPF) para elevar la seguridad del suministro,” Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo de Chile, Proyecto FONDECYT, Nov. 2017.
M. Brito, E. Gil and I. Calle, “Unit commitment with primary Frequency control requirements for low-inertia systems,” IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM), pp. 1-5, Aug. 2018.
H. Chamorro, F. Sevilla, F. Gonzalez-Longatt, K. Rouzbehi, H. Chavez and V. Sood, “Innovative primary frequency control in low inertia power systems based on wide-area RoCoF sharing,” IET Energy Systems Integration, vol. 2, pp. 151-160, Jun. 2020.
H. Delkhosh and H. Seifi, “Technical valuation of generating units for participating in primary frequency control,” International Journal of Electrical Power & EnergySystems, vol. 118, Jun. 2020.
F. Arrigo, E. Bompard, M. Merlo and F. Milano, “Assessment of primary frequency control through battery energy storage systems,” International Journal of Electrical Power & EnergySystems, vol. 115, Feb. 2020.
H. González and C. Roa, “Definición de modelos BESS para el control primario de frecuencia,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Electrical Engineering., Concepción Univ., Concepción, Chile, 2019.
I. Nasiruddin,, N. Hasan and S. Ahmad, “Decision based primary frequency control scheme in RGMO environment,” Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks, vol. 16, pp. 405-414, Dec. 2018.
J. Wang, J. Su, M. Merlo, Y. Zhao, X. Pang, L. Li and Z. Bi, “Performance assessment of primary frequency control responses for thermal power generation units using system identification techniques,” International Journal of Electrical Power & EnergySystems, vol. 115, pp. 81-90, Sep. 2018.
U. Datta, A. Kalam and J. Shi, “The relevance of large-scale battery energy storage (BES) application in providing primary frequency control with increased wind energy penetration,” Journal of Energy Storage, vol. 23, pp. 9-18, Jun. 2019.
A. Hansen, M. Altin and F. Lov, “Provision of enhanced ancillary services from wind power plants – Examples and challenges,” Renewable Energy, vol. 97, pp. 8-18, Nov. 2016.
P. Frade, G. Osório, J. Santana and J. Catalao, “Regional coordination in ancillary services: An innovative study for secondary control in the Iberian electrical system,” International Journal of Electrical Power & EnergySystems, vol. 109, pp. 513-525, Jul. 2019.
J. Reisz, J. Gilmore and I. MacGill, “Frequency control ancillary service market design: insights from the Australian National Electricity Market,” The Electricity Journal, vol. 28, pp. 86-99, Apr. 2015.
D. Fernández-Muñoz, J. Pérez-Díaz, I. Guisández, M. Chazarra and A. Fernández-Espina, “Fast frequency control ancillary services: An international review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 120, Mar. 2020.
H. Goudarzi, M. Rayati, A. Sheikhi and A. Mohammad, “A clearing mechanism for joint energy and ancillary services in non-convex markets considering high penetration of renewable energy sources,” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 129, Jul. 2021.
T. Bharath Kumar and A. Singh, “Ancillary services in the Indian power sector – A look at recent developments and prospects,” Energy Policy, vol. 149, Feb. 2021.
J. Zarnikau, C. H. Tsai and C. K. Woo, “Determinants of the wholesale prices of energy and ancillary services in the U.S. Midcontinent electricity market,” Energy, vol. 195, Mar. 2020.
J. Hu, Q. Yan, X. Li, Z. Jiang, F. Kahrl, J. Lin and P. Wang, “A cooperative game-based mechanism for allocating ancillary service costs associated with wind power integration in China,” Utilities Policy, vol. 58, pp. 120-127 Jun. 2019.
J. Hu, Q. Yan, F. Kahrl, X. Liu, P. Wang and J. Lin, “Evaluating the ancillary services market for large-scale renewable energy integration in China's northeastern power grid,” Utilities Policy, vol. 69, Apr. 2021.
A. Banshwar, N. Kumar Sharma, Y. Raj Sood and R. Shrivastava, “Renewable energy sources as a new participant in ancillary service markets,” Energy Strategy Reviews, vol. 18, pp. 106-120, Dec. 2017.
J. Barroco, “Designing financeable ancillary services revenue contracts in developing economies: Learnings from the Philippines,” Energy Policy, vol. 152, May. 2021.