Internet of Things: State-of-the-art, Computing Paradigms and Reference Architectures



Internet of Things, IoT, IoT reference architecture, IoT reference model, Data management, middleware, computing paradigms, IoT ecosystem components


The Internet of Things (IoT) makes it possible to connect objects or things to the internet, with the purpose of collecting data and controlling processes or machines remotely. IoT enables the physical world to be integrated into the digital world in order to optimize time, save costs and facilitate human labor. An IoT system comprises a rich ecosystem of elements that make up its value chain, which includes a computational and communication architecture or model, components and technologies. IoT has evolved rapidly, producing an exuberant scientific literature. This document presents the state of the art of IoT, with updated sources, that guides the reader, who is entering the world of IoT, to have a starting point for future research. In addition to the review of IoT architectures, components of the IoT ecosystem, computational paradigms and, security and governance aspects. Our main contribution is focused on the analysis of the Middleware layer in IoT architectures, oriented to the storage and processing of data.


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Author Biographies

Bertha Mazon-Olivo, Universidad Técnica de Machala

Bertha Mazon-Olivo, is a Systems Engineer and a Master in Applied Informatics from the Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo, Ecuador. She is a Associate Professor at the Universidad Técnica de Machala. She is a student of the doctoral program in Information and Communication Technologies at the Universidade da Coruña, Spain. Her research interests are: Internet of Things and Data Science. She has several indexed publications. 

Alberto Pan, Universidade da Coruña

Alberto Pan, is Denodo's Technical Director and Associate Professor at the Universidad da Coruña. He received a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science from the Universidad da Coruña in 1996 and a Ph.D. in Computer Science from the same university in 2002. His research interests are related to data extraction and integration and web automation. He has directed several projects at the national and regional level. He is also the author and co-author of numerous publications in scientific journals and conference proceedings.


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How to Cite

Mazon-Olivo, B., & Pan, A. (2021). Internet of Things: State-of-the-art, Computing Paradigms and Reference Architectures. IEEE Latin America Transactions, 20(1), 49–63. Retrieved from